By E. Nasib. University of Texas at Dallas. 2019.
These may be linked to therapeutic drug molecules to increase epithelial transport by active transport processes and drug targeting selectivity buy 100mcg cytotec with visa. Describe the potential roles of proteomics and genomics in drug delivery and targeting trusted 100mcg cytotec. Identify two ways in which combinatorial chemistry may impinge on drug delivery and targeting. The preceding chapters in the last part of this book have highlighted the recent developments in gene therapy, drug discovery, genomics and proteomics as a consequence of the recent developments in molecular biology and chemistry. This chapter concludes this text by examining how the advances in chemistry and biology are providing opportunities for more effective site-specific drug targeting and bioresponsive pulsatile drug delivery. The chapter considers the development of prodrug-based technologies for cell-specific drug delivery, provides an overview of the use of smart polymeric systems, microchips and genetically engineered cell-based implants in addressing the challenges of chronopharmacology, and offers a perspective of the future of drug delivery and targeting in this new millennium. In the discovery process opportunities exist, as illustrated in Chapter 15, to identify cell-specific enzymes and ligands which may be used to target drugs to these cells. The integration of the considerations for drug delivery and targeting into the drug design process may ultimately allow the development of drugs which are not just potent and non-toxic but offer the advantage that their chemical structure dictates the targeting of the drug to its particular site of action through enzyme-based chemical delivery systems using prodrugs. A prodrug is a pharmacacologically inactive compound which undergoes chemical or enzymatic metabolism to the active. Some of the early pharmaceuticals were found to be prodrugs and this finding has led to the subsequent introduction of the metabolite itself into therapy, particularly in cases where the active metabolite is less toxic or has fewer side-effects than the parent prodrug. The administration of the active metabolite may also reduce variability in clinical response between individuals due to differences in pharmacogenetics. Most chemically designed prodrugs consist of two components; the active drug chemically linked to a pharmacologically inert moiety. The prodrug must be sufficiently stable to withstand the pharmaceutical formulation while permitting chemical or enzymatic cleavage at the appropriate time or site. After administration or absorption of the prodrug, the active drug is usually released by either chemical or enzymatic, hydrolytic or reductive processes. Prodrugs are most commonly used to overcome the biological and pharmaceutical barriers which separate the site of administration of the drug from the site of action (Figure 16. Prodrug design has been used to address a wide range of pharmaceutical problems including: • unpalatability • gastric irritation • pain on injection • insolubility • instability.
Rettie Studying Speed reading Written exams Clinical exams Standardized test taking skills Clinical exam skills Algorithm 10 purchase 200 mcg cytotec mastercard. You know that reading is necessary in order to master each of the above activities cytotec 200 mcg mastercard. This chapter is a very practical guide to surviving the academic part of the clerkship and to dealing with the case presented at the beginning of this chapter. Three topics are covered: mastering speed reading, excelling on stan- dardized clinical exams, and maximizing your score on standardized written exams. Speed Reading Read Every Day Regardless of whether your school uses traditional lecture series, problem-based learning, or small-group discussions, reading is an essential, daily activity. It may be very tempting and feel necessary to devote extraordinary amounts of time to your clinical experience at the sacriﬁce of time spent reading. There always is one more clinical task that needs to be done, whether it is checking up on labs, writing a note in the chart, or checking on vitals. To provide the best patient care and to remain on the cutting edge of medical science, make reading a part of your clin- ical practice. Clerkship Survival Skills 161 • manage the clinical problems you encounter; • prepare for formal teaching sessions; and • prepare for ﬁnal assessments (written and performance exams). What can you do to maximize the effective- ness of your studying—to understand, integrate, and remember the material? Many clerkships use the Association of Surgical Education’s Manual of Surgical Objectives. Look for books that provide diagrams, anatomic illustrations, and other supporting visual information that are useful. Research has documented that the fastest readers and those who retain the most information read for concepts. The ﬁrst thing to do is to turn off that little voice in your head that speaks each word out loud as you encounter it. Speed reading focuses on recognition of concepts, relationships, and important details. Basically, what you do is to read the material several times at increasing levels of speciﬁcity rather than read once, slowly, word by word.